Home | Help     
Prev<< See More Youniverse >>Next
October 2010
 
By The Numbers

Social networking site Facebook has more than 500 million registered users which is a record in itself.

 
Exams alert

Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) has scheduled its written entrance test on November 28, 2010 at twenty centers around India.

 
 
Thus Spake

Never let formal education get in the way of your learning

- Mark Twain
Interesting Facts  
 
The ancient Greeks first grew carrots as a form of medicine and not a food.
 
   

Did you know

 
 
Electricity: Electricity was first discovered about 2 500 years ago. The Greek scientist Thales of Miletus (c. 620 BCE – c. 546 BC) noticed that a piece of amber (the hard fossilized sap from trees) attracted straw or feathers when he rubbed it with a cloth.
 
 

 

4G Mobile Technology  
Introduction

4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands.

 
 
 
Smile Please..!   

Plastic surgery is not that great!

A 60 year old man was walking along 5th Avenue when he heard a voice from above "You will live to be 100".

He looked around and didn’t t see anyone.

"Again he heard "You will live to be 100."

He thought to himself, that was the voice of God. I ve got 40 more years to live! So off he went to the plastic surgeon. He got everything fixed from head to toe. When he left the plastic surgeons office, he got hit by a bus, died, and went up to heaven.

He said to God "You told me I would live to be 100. I was supposed to have had 40 more years”.

So how come you let the bus kill me?

God said: "I didn’t t recognizes you".

 

Go Slow

Teacher: Why are you late, Joseph?

Joseph: Because of a sign down the road

Teacher: What does a sign have to do with your being late?

Joseph: The sign said, "School Ahead, Go Slow!"

 
 
From The Editors Desk
 

Heartiest Greetings!

In this issue of Youniverse, we have presented an article providing introduction of the upcoming mobile technology “4G”.

Our regular section on “Exam Alerts” informs you of the important dates of the upcoming entrance examinations. The section on “Complex simplicities” explains selected tech jargons and their meaning every month.

 
Complex Simplicities  

Organic LED (OLED)

Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent.

3D Television (3D-TV)

3D Television (3D-TV) is a television set that employs techniques of 3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or 2D plus depth, and a 3D display a special viewing device to project a television program into a realistic three-dimensional field. There are several techniques to produce and display 3D moving pictures.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
top 
 
 
Interesting Facts
 
The ancient Greeks first grew carrots as a form of medicine and not a food.
     
The first place in the world to allow women to vote is New Zealand.
The first US coast to coast aeroplane flight occurred in 1911 and took 49 days.
The Chinese used fingerprints as a method of identification as far back as AD 700.
The first taxi service began in New York in 1907.
The first crossword puzzle appeared in 1913.
The first drug that was sold as a water soluble tablet was aspirin in 1900.
The first ground vacuum packed coffee was first introduced in 1900.
The 1st full length animated film was released by Disney Studios in 1937 (it was Snow White and the seven dwarfs).
In 1872 Yellowstone in the US was the world's first national park.
Americans throw away 44 million newspapers a day.
The meaning of 'Blue Chip' comes from blue casino chips which have a high value.
The 'black box' that houses an airplanes voice recorder is actually orange so it can be more easily detected amid the debris of a plane crash.
An elephant’s ears are used to regulate body temperature.
The word denim comes from 'de Nimes' or from Nimes which is a town in France.
Instant mashed potatoes (dehydrated potato flakes) were invented in Canadian in 1962.
 
 
   
 
Did you know
 
Electricity: Electricity was first discovered about 2500 years ago. The Greek scientist Thales of Miletus (c. 620 BCE – c. 546 BC) noticed that a piece of amber (the hard fossilized sap from trees) attracted straw or feathers when he rubbed it with a cloth. The word “electricity” comes from the Greek word for amber – “elektron”. Thales is also known as the father of philosophy. The word “electric” was first used in 1600 by William Gilbert, a doctor to Queen Elizabeth I. He carried out experiments and discovered that materials such as diamond, glass and wax behaved in a similar way to amber. Count Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in the 18th century. He called it a “voltaic pile.” It consisted of a pile of zinc and silver or
copper discs separated by pads moistened with an acid solution. The unit for measuring a unit of electricity, a volt, is named after Count Volta.
Age of Discovery: The Age of Discovery was led by the the great sea adventurers in their search for a route to spice markets of the Far East when the eastern Mediterranean were blocked by powerful rivals. When Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to reach India in 1488, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts to the south and east. The Spanish, who agreed to divide the world in two with the Portuguese in the Treaty of Tordesillas on 7 June 1494, sailed west. They were not aware of the American continents and no one knew there was a Pacific Ocean.
Photographs of mirages: In a desert a mirage is caused when air near the ground is hotter than air higher up. As light from the sun passes from cooler to warmer air it speeds up and is refracted upward, creating the image of water. Mirages are also found at the poles. A warmer layer of air over a cold layer bends light rays so that images appear. From a distance, ships can appear to be floating several feet (metres) above the water. At the end of the winter, after the long absence of the sun, a reflection of the sun appears in a mirage days before it actually rises. The rays that produce mirages are optical phenomenons but are real and can be photographed.
 
 
4G Mobile Technology
 
Introduction
4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands. The first was the move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2002, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s, soon expected to be followed by 4G, which refers to all-IP packet-switched networks, mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission. Pre-4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release 3G Long term evolution (LTE) have been available on the market since 2006 and 2009 respectively.
4G mobile technology is the name given to the next generation of mobile devices such as cell phones. It became available from at least one provider in several parts of the US in 2009. There is not yet an agreed industry standard for what constitutes 4G mobile, so for now it is merely a marketing term.
The use of G, standing for generation, in mobile technology covers the major advances of the past 20-30 years. 1G technology involved the first widely available mobile phones. 2G technology, which began in the early 1990s, switched to a digital format and introduced text messaging. 3G technology improved the efficiency of how data is carried, making it possible to carry enhanced information services such as websites in their original format. The latest iPhone is the best known example of 3G technology.
Key 4G technologies:
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Software Defined Radio (SDR)
Multiple-input multiple-output ( MIMO )
Quality of services
Traffic generated by the different will not only increase loads on the networks, but will also require different Quality of services(QoS) requirements (eg., cell loss rate, delay, and jetter) for different streams (eg., video, voice and data).
Providing QoS guarantees in 4G networks is a non-trivial issue where both QoS signaling across different networks and services differentiation between mobile flows will have to be addressed.
One of the most difficult problems that are to be solved, when it comes to IP mobility, is how to insure the constant QoS level during the handover.
Depending on whether the new access router is in the same or some other subnetwork.
However, the mobile terminal cannot receive IP packets while the process of handover is finished. This time is called the handover latency.
Handover latency has a great influence on the flow of multimedia applications in real-time.
Mobile IPv6 has been proposed to reduce the handover latency and the number of lost packets.
The field “Traffic Class” and “Flow Label” in IPv6 eider enables the routers to secure the special QoS for specific packet series with marked priority
Security
The heterogeneity of wireless networks complicates the security issue.
Dynamic reconfigurable, adaptive, and lightweight security mechanism should be developed.
Security in wireless network mainly involves authentication, confidentiality, integrity and authorization for the access of network connectivity and QoS resources for the mobile nodes flow.
AAA (Authentication Authorization Auditing) protocols provide a framework for such suffered especially for control plan function and installing security policies in the mobile nodes such as encryption, decryption and filtering.
Benefits of 4G wireless broadband
4G mobile wireless broadband will benefit both casual users of mobile broadband services and business users, which is why so many people are keen to start using 4G mobile wireless broadband. With the current strain on 3G networks, which is expected to increase, mobile broadband users could start to see the reliability and speed of their service suffer. However, with 4G mobile wireless broadband users will be able to benefit from increased network capacity, which will eliminate much of the strain that is currently being experienced with 3G networks. This means that with 4G mobile wireless broadband users will be able to enjoy faster speeds with their mobile broadband services as well as greater reliability.
Benefits for Operators
Higher bandwidths.
Lower cost of networks and equipment.
The use of license-exempt spectrum.
Higher capacity and QoS enhancement.
Higher revenue.
Benefits for User
Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where mostly needed
Inter-network roaming.
Socio-Economic Impact
More affordable communication services
One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices
TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device the cell phone Streaming HD video
The Future of 4G Networks
4G promises increased downloading speeds and more accessible connectivity. Wireless distribution companies, such as AT&T, Sprint, and Verizon, boast that users will be able to connect to 4G towers from virtually any location on Earth. Currently, wireless users must use a data card or the individual must be in a wireless hot spot to connect to the wireless 3G network.
The new 4G networks will download at speeds between 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. The current 3G download speed averages around 200 kbps. At these high speeds, users will be able to stream HD television signals instantly and experience real time video and audio during web chats without irritating image delays. This faster service will be available anywhere a device can locate a signal, and will transfer between towers so quickly that consumers may use their devices while in transit without being confined to a hot spot.
 
Organic LED (OLED)
organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication; they can also be used in light sources for general space illumination and in large-area light-emitting elements. Due to their comparatively early stage of development, they typically emit less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LED point-light sources.
An OLED display functions without a backlight, therefore it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than established liquid crystal displays. Similarly, in low ambient light conditions such as dark rooms, an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD screen using either cold cathode fluorescent lamps or the more recently developed LED backlight.
 
 
3D Television (3D-TV)

3D Television (3D-TV)is a television set that employs techniques of 3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or 2D plus depth, and a 3D display a special viewing device to project a television program into a realistic three-dimensional field. There are several techniques to produce and display 3D moving pictures.

Single view displays project only one stereo pair at a time. Multi-view displays either use head tracking to change the view depending of the viewing angle, or simultaneously project multiple independent views of a scene for multiple viewers (automultiscopic); such multiple views can be created on the fly using the 2D plus depth format.
Various other display techniques have been described, such as holography, volumetric display and the Pulfrich effect, that was used by Doctor Who for Dimensions in Time in 1993, by 3rd Rock from The Sun in 1997, and by the Discovery Channel's Shark Week in 2000, among others. Real-Time 3D TV is essentially a form of auto stereoscopic display.
 
 
From The Editors Desk
 
Kayalvizhi M.S
Email - kayal@mindlogicx.com
 
Heartiest Greetings!

In this issue of Youniverse, we have presented an article providing introduction of the upcoming mobile technology “4G”.

Our regular section on “Exam Alerts” informs you of the important dates of the upcoming entrance examinations. The section on “Complex simplicities” explains selected tech jargons and their meaning every month.

We hope you would find the information presented in this issue of Youniverse interesting and useful.

We welcome your thought, views, comments & suggestions to share information as knowledge.

 
Editor
 
 
Feedback
 
Please provide us with your feedback on how you feel about the Youniverse newsletter.You can also send us your queries on the VEDAS services.
top
Email to info@vedaslive.com
 
 
 
    News&Events    Terms of use       Sitemap    Contact us
©Mindlogicx Infratec Limited.